What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin

What is Dyslexia?

The international Dyslexia Association (IDA) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) adopted the following definitions of Dyslexia.

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties especially result from a default in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

The definition's main points from the recommendation of Sir Jim Rose in the Rose Report are:
• It affects the ability to read and spell,
• It can affect short-term memory and speed of recalling names.
• It involves difficulties in dealing with the sounds of words, which makes it especially hard to learn to use phonics to read words.
• Other kinds of difficulties, for example with maths or with co-ordination, sometimes go alongside dyslexia, but they do not always.

Dyslexia is not the same for everyone.
- It can be mild or severe;
- It varies depending on other strengths or difficulties
- It varies depending on the kind of support and encouragement that is given at school, at home and at work.

One thing we know for certain about dyslexia is that this is one small area of difficulty in a sea of strengths. Having trouble with reading does not mean that dyslexics have trouble with everything. Most children with dyslexia are very good at a lot of other things. The Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity.

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